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End-of-waste criteria for waste paper: Technical proposals

  • Authors: Alejandro Villanueva and Peter Eder
  • EUR Number: 24789 EN
  • Publication date: 4/2011


This report presents proposals of end-of-waste (EoW) criteria for waste paper, defining the technical requirements that waste paper has to fulfil in order to cease to be waste in the EU. The report includes the background data and assessments used to support the proposals, including a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of waste paper recycling, and analyses of the potential economic, environmental and legal impacts when waste paper ceases to be waste.
This report is a contribution to the implementation of the concept of End-of-waste in EU legislation, a mechanism introduced through Article 6 of the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC). The Directive introduces the possibility that certain waste streams having undergone a recovery operation and fulfilling certain criteria – so-called End-of-waste criteria – can cease to be waste. The criteria have to ensure that the waste streams fulfil a number of conditions, including the existence of a commonly used specific applications, existence of a market or a demand, fulfilment of technical requirements for the specific applications, meeting existing legislation and standards applicable to the products the waste streams substitute; and the absence of any overall adverse environmental or human health impacts.

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